Cmentarz Chanów w Bachczysaraju

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Cmentarz Chanów w Bachczysaraju – cmentarz znajdujący się w kompleksie pałacowym chanów krymskich w Bachczysaraju na południe od Wielkiego Meczetu kurtki bogner. Na cmentarzu pochowanych jest dziewięciu chanów, 45 członków rodziny chanów oraz niektóre osoby należące do ówczesnej arystokracji.
Od strony dziedzińca głównego kompleksu pałacowego na cmentarzu znajdują się dwa ośmioboczne mauzolea (diurbe). Północne mauzoleum pochodzi z XVI wieku i pochowany tutaj jest Dewlet I Girej i sześciu członków jego rodziny. Południowe mauzoleum zostało zbudowane po śmierci chana Islama III Gireja, który tam został pochowany oraz dziewięciu członków rodziny kurtki bogner. Bezpośrednio na południe od mauzoleum Islama III Gireja znajduje się kamienna rotunda, a w niej zachowany grób Meñli II Gireja.
Większość zachowanych nagrobków jest wykonana z marmuru i ozdobiona pięknymi płaskorzeźbami. Cyprysy symbolizują smutek kurtki bogner, a winorośl, róże i stylizowane rozety – życie wieczne. Wszystkie nagrobki wykonane są według takiego samego schematu: kamiennego sarkofagu i dwóch steli, różniących się między sobą. Stele od strony głowy są zwieńczone ozdobami w kształcie nakrycia głowy oraz ozdobione napisami kurtki bogner.
Stele na nagrobkach męskich zwieńczone są czałmą (turbanem), natomiast na stelach nagrobków kobiecych płaską czapeczką lub kłębkiem. Prawie wszystkie nagrobki ozdobione są wyrzeźbionymi epitafiami kurtki bogner.
Na terenie cmentarza pochowano następujących władców Chanatu krymskiego:

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Gugure! Kokkuri-san

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Gugure! Kokkuri-san (Japanese: 繰繰れ! コックリさん?) is a Japanese manga series by Midori Endō

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, serialized in Square Enix’s Gangan Joker since 2011. It has been collected in seven tankōbon volumes as of October 2014. An anime television series adaptation by TMS Entertainment aired in Japan between October and December 2014

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Kohina Ichimatsu is an expressionless elementary school girl who lives alone, proclaims herself to be a doll, and eats nothing but instant noodles. One day, she plays the Kokkuri game by herself and summons the fox spirit Kokkuri-san who, upon seeing her unhealthy lifestyle, takes it upon himself to become her guardian and raise her properly. Thus starts Kohina’s new life of being haunted by various unique spirits.
An anime television series adaptation by TMS Entertainment aired in Japan between October 5, 2014 and December 21, 2014 and was simulcast by Crunchyroll. The opening theme is “Welcome!! DISCO Kemokemoke” (Welcome

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!!DISCOけもけもけ)

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, performed by the voice actors Daisuke Ono, Takahiro Sakurai and Jōji Nakata while the ending theme “This Merry-Go-Round Song” performed by Suemitsu Atsushi

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Lowline (park)

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Coordinates: 40°43′05″N 73°59′13″W / 40.717989°N 73.987025°W / 40.717989; -73.987025
The Lowline, formally known as the Delancey Underground, is a proposal for the world’s first underground park in the New York City borough of Manhattan that would be located under the eastbound roadway of Delancey Street on the Lower East Side, adjacent to the Essex Street station (J M Z trains). Co-founders James Ramsey and Dan Barasch have suggested natural light would be directed below ground using fiber optics—described in the proposed plan as “remote skylights”—to provide an area in which trees and grass could be grown beneath the city streets. Light collectors would be placed at ground level, with suggested locations, including the median on Delancey Street. Artificial lighting would be used to supplement the redirect sunlight, and at night and when the sun is obscured by clouds. The area

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, with ceilings 20 feet (6.1 m) high, extends three blocks east from Essex Street to Clinton Street and was used until 1948 as a station and balloon loop for streetcars crossing the Williamsburg Bridge to and from Brooklyn. R. Boykin Curry IV is the third urban entrepreneur behind the proposal.

The large trolley terminal that is the site has sat unused for more than 60 years. The project was first proposed in 2011 and quickly generated widespread media attention

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In 2012, the project raised over $150,000 from 3,300 backers on Kickstarter to create a full-scale exhibition of the solar lighting technology

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. The project was named by Mashable as one of the top Kickstarter projects of that year. In September 2012 an installation was opened on the Lower East Side to promote the project; titled “Imagining the Lowline,” it consisted of a 30-foot wide aluminum solar canopy distributing natural sunlight onto a live cultivated landscape “park.” The exhibit saw over 11,000 visitors and featured design talks, school visits, weekend street fairs and a political event. The executive producer of the exhibit was Robyn Shapiro and the industrial designer was Ed Jacobs with support from Brandt Graves.
The project has been endorsed by politicians and organizations such as US Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, former NY State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, Manhattan Community Board 3, and the Lower East Side business improvement district. Barasch and Ramsey worked with HR&A Advisors and Arup to complete a feasibility study outlining the cost to build the park, long-term business model and community benefits. The findings were released to various news outlets such as the Wall Street Journal. and New York magazine.The Lowline was shown in Time magazine’s 25 best inventions of 2015 (Dec7 issue). The underground area borders the 1,650,000 square feet (153,000 m2) Seward Park Urban Renewal Area, for which the Economic Development Corporation has issued an RFP. The Lowline site is not included in the RFP as it is owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Lowline team is currently working with the MTA, who will not contribute any funds, and the New York City Council to gain access to build on site, as well as continuing with their fundraising efforts.
Project:
Existing space:

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Orckit-Corrigent

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Co-Founder, Chairman of the Board and President: Izhak Tamir
Orckit-Corrigent (NASDAQ: ORCT; TASE: ORCT) was an Israel-based global supplier of telecommunications networking equipment and products that facilitated the delivery of Carrier Ethernet and TDM migration applications for telecommunication providers around the world.
Orckit-Corrigent was founded in 1990 and is headquartered in Tel Aviv, Israel. It went public in 1996, making history as the first Israeli company to face excess public demand at its initial public offering (IPO) in NASDAQ. However, despite those initial large contracts the company was unable to renew them. After years of losses, the company underwent a failed debt restructuring agreement in 2012, and entered bankruptcy and liquidation proceedings in mid-2015.

Orckit was founded in 1990 by Izhak Tamir and Eric Paneth.
In September 1996, Orckit announced an initial public offering (IPO) of 3.3 million of its ordinary shares at a public offering price of $16.00

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. The company then made history when its initial public offering on the Nasdaq over-the-counter exchange was postponed due to oversubscription. This made Orckit the first Israeli company ever to suffer a deferral on Nasdaq as a result of excess public demand.
In 2000, Orckit founded Corrigent Systems as a fully owned subsidiary. This move marked a transformation of the company, which originated as a DSL vendor, into a packet transport network (PTN) vendor. That year, the company began developing and manufacturing PTN products for metro aggregation networks and, Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) technology was developed and introduced to the market as IEEE 802.17 Standard, as part of the company’s packet transport technology.
In 2007, Orckit-Corrigent launched its CM4000 PTN line of products, which currently serves multiple telecom providers worldwide, including leading Indian carrier Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL), Deutsche Telekom, a leading Pan-European Scandinavian Service Provider, Mexican redIT (formerly MetroNet), and others

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In August 2009, Orckit-Corrigent opened a new office in Brazil to help strengthen its Latin American presence. In January 2010, Lindsay Ryan was hired as regional sales manager to head a new office in Manila, Philippines. At its peak, the company had international offices in Israel, US, India, Japan, Korea, Germany, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, Thailand

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, and the Philippines.
In February 2010, VK Aggarwal was appointed new managing director of Orckit-Corrigent’s new India headquarters. The company also hired additional employees to better serve existing customers and develop new opportunities in the region.
In March 2010, Orckit-Corrigent opened a new office in Thailand and appointed Monchai Kunwattanakorn as the new VP Sales for Thailand, Laos and Myanmar.
In May 2010, Orckit-Corrigent opened a new sales office and service center in Germany

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, which is headed by Bernd Muehlhaus. This was an important move for the company, as the European region captures approximately a third of the global carrier ethernet market. Orckit-Corrigent is active in the German market, having signed an agreement with Media Broadcast GmbH for Deutsche Telekom in 2008.
Following the “dot com boom”, Orckit has amassed increasing debt throughout the 2000-2010 decade, ultimately reaching a debt restructuring agreement with its creditors in 2012. In June 2014 the company was valued at 1.7 million USD, down from a peak of 2 billion USD in the early 2000s. As of June 2015, the company is in liquidation proceedings

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, and is expected to be sold as a stock exchange shell.
Orckit-Corrigent’s solutions offered networking infrastructure for the delivery of residential, business and mobile backhauling services]] in packet-based networks]. Orckit-Corrigent focused on what the company termed TDM migration, whereby carriers operating legacy SDH networks with growing levels of ethernet traffic are offered the ability to progressively transition to a network where traffic is offloaded to a platform that can handle both TDM and ethernet services.
Orckit-Corrigent targeted the global carrier ethernet switch/router market and optical networking equipment market, offering application delivery for the PTN market and TDM migration for MSPP installed-base.
The company’s PTN solution included standard and interoperable MPLS and MPLS-TP switches with a wide set of transport features, enabling advanced packet, as well as legacy services, over packet transport networks. The solution also offered advanced circuit emulation and packet synchronization technologies as one of the building blocks for the TDM upgrade.
The CM-4000 product family is a series of packet transport network switches. It consists of the CM-4140, CM-4206 and CM-4314T/4314 models. Orckit’s CM-401x portfolio of switches includes the CM-4011, CM-4012 and CM-4013 products and is fully compatible with the company’s metro aggregation products.

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The Hanging Garden

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Singles de The Cure
Charlotte Sometimes Let’s Go to Bed
Pistes de Pornography
A Short Term Effect Siamese Twins
modifier
The Hanging Garden est une chanson du groupe The Cure figurant sur l’album Pornography. C’est aussi la chanson principale du septième single de la carrière du groupe dont le titre officiel est simplement A Single. Il est plus communément désigné par The Hanging Garden

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Il est publié le 6 juillet 1982

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, soit deux mois après Pornography

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, sous le format 45 tours avec en face B une version de Killing an Arab enregistrée en public à Manchester en avril 1982

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, ainsi qu’en format double 45 tours avec deux titres supplémentaires : One Hundred Years

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, autre extrait de Pornography, et une version de A Forest en public, captée elle aussi à Manchester. Il existe une édition allemande sous un format Maxi 45 tours de 25 centimètres regroupant les quatre titres.
Ce single est le dernier de la période Cold wave du groupe. Quand il paraît, Simon Gallup a déjà quitté The Cure.
La chanson a été reprise en 1998 par le groupe de punk rock AFI sur A Fire Inside EP.

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Jean-Baptiste Salme

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Jean-Baptiste Salme or Salm (18 November 1766 – 27 May 1811) led French troops in several actions during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. Several times he landed in trouble by associating with the wrong people, including his wife who tried to kill him. He served alongside Jacques MacDonald when they were both generals of brigade in the Flanders Campaign in 1794. Still commanding only a brigade he served in MacDonald’s army in Italy during 1799 and in Spain during 1810.
In 1784 he joined a dragoon regiment in the French Royal Army in 1784. He emerged as the commanding officer of the 3rd Infantry Demi-brigade in the Army of the Rhine in 1793. He led his unit at Haguenau and Second Wissembourg. In 1794 he transferred to northeast France and was promoted to general officer, subsequently fighting at Tourcoing, Tournay and Hooglede. After besieging and capturing the fortress of Grave he was on occupation duty in Belgium and Holland.
Salme’s friendship with the traitor Jean-Charles Pichegru caused him to be unemployed for over a year. He served in Italy in 1798 and led the army advance guard at the Trebbia in 1799 where he was wounded and captured by the Austrians. In 1802 he went on the Saint-Domingue expedition to Haiti but was sent home early, possibly for having a sexual liaison with Pauline Bonaparte. Then his wife tried to poison him and he was retired from the army. In 1809 he briefly led a second-line outfit in the Walcheren Campaign. The following year he was given a brigade and served in Catalonia. He was killed in action during the Siege of Tarragona in 1811. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 38.

Salme was born on 18 November 1766 in Aillianville to father Jean Baptiste Salme and mother Marie Jeanne Vignon. The godparents at the baptism were Nicolas Salme and Marie Gérard, the paternal grandfather and his second wife. Salme’s father was a laborer and later became a timber merchant in 1784. Jean-Baptiste père was accused of misappropriating civic funds in 1789. The father’s membership in the bourgeoisie may have aroused suspicion, causing him some trouble in May 1793, but he went on to become mayor in 1807. Jean Baptiste fils was well-educated by his uncle Gaspard who was a parish priest.
Against his parents’ wishes, Salme ran off and enlisted in the Tribois company of the Noailles Dragoon Regiment on 16 April 1784. The unit’s commander was Philippe Louis de Noailles and its garrison town was Épinal. The youthful dragoon was described as five feet four inches tall with light brown hair. He was round-faced and had a smallpox scar on his nose. He remained a simple private during his early military career, serving in garrison at Toulouse and Carcassonne in 1788 and Montauban in 1790. His father finally persuaded him that there was no future for him in the army and he left the service on 12 January 1791.
On 9 July 1791 a law provided for the formation of volunteer battalions and Salme joined the 1st Battalion of the Vosges National Guard at Neufchâteau. Recognizing his former service as a dragoon, the old soldier who commanded the battalion made him a sergeant. Salme so enthusiastically participated in the training of the battalion while it was cantoned at Saverne that he was promoted to sous-lieutenant on 15 April 1792. He was married the next day to Jeanne Henriette Masse. War broke out on 20 April and the battalion was ordered to the front on 19 July. Salme was involved in operations around the Prussian siege of Longwy, being wounded at Rülzheim on 3 August 1792. The 1st Vosges Battalion was present at the capture of Speyer on 30 September when Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine’s 24,000-man Army of the Rhine trapped 3,600 Imperial troops in a bend of the Rhine River. In the spring of 1793 the 1st Vosges was in Jean Nicolas Houchard’s 1st Brigade of Joseph Victorin Nevinger’s Left Wing near Bingen am Rhein. On 14 September 1793 Salme greatly distinguished himself in an action at Nothweiler in which he was wounded.
On 7 October 1793 Salme was named lieutenant colonel of the 15th Vosges Battalion, a unit of raw and undisciplined conscripts. Soon after, he was appointed to lead the 3rd Line Infantry Demi-brigade as Chef de brigade (colonel) on 28 October. On 30 October the 3rd Line belonged to the army’s Center which was led by Louis Dominique Munnier. During the subsequent Battle of Haguenau, Salme seized Bettenhoffen from the Austrians on 1 December and fought at Berstheim, winning commendation from army commander Jean-Charles Pichegru. On 18 December his unit fought Austrian hussars and he was wounded in the arm by a saber-cut. Nevertheless, he led his regiment in the Second Battle of Wissembourg on 26 December 1793.
Pichegru was nominated commander of the Army of the North on 6 January 1794, succeeding Jean-Baptiste Jourdan who was dismissed on 19 January. On 8 February Pichegru arrived at army headquarters to take over from the acting commander Jacques Ferrand. Salme was promoted to general of brigade on 30 March 1794 Paul Frank Caps. He had become friends with Pichegru who employed him with the Army of the North. Salme took charge of a brigade in Jacques Philippe Bonnaud’s division which fought at the Battle of Tourcoing on 18 May and at the Battle of Tournay on 22 May. For the operations covering the Siege of Ypres Salme’s brigade formed part of Éloi Laurent Despeaux’s division. When Jean Victor Marie Moreau’s troops invested Ypres on 1 June, the divisions of Despeaux on the right, Joseph Souham in the center and Pierre Antoine Michaud on the left provided the screening force. On 10 June the three screening divisions drove a Coalition corps under François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt from Roeselare (Roulers) after a stiff battle. At 7:00 am on the 13th Clerfayt launched a surprise attack on Despeaux’s division, routing Philippe Joseph Malbrancq’s brigade and pushing Salme’s brigade back toward Menen. The next brigade in line, Jacques MacDonald’s of Souham’s division resisted Clerfayt’s attacks at Hooglede for six hours. At that time, Jan de Winter’s brigade arrived to support MacDonald’s left and Salme’s rallied soldiers moved forward on his right. The tired Coalition soldiers withdrew and Ypres fell on 18 June.
Salme was seriously wounded and his horse killed under him on 13 July at Mechelen (Malines) while fighting along the Leuven Canal. He received credit for the seizure of the town. On 1 September Despeaux’s 4th Division consisted of three battalions each of the 38th and 131st Line Infantry Demi-brigades, 3rd Battalion of Tirailleurs, 5th Battalion of Chasseurs, four squadrons of the 19th Cavalry and two squadrons of the 13th Chasseurs à Cheval. Salme replaced Despeaux in command of the division on 20 September. He was ordered to invest the fortress of Grave which his division did on 17 October. Evidently siege artillery was not immediately available because cannons did not start firing at Grave’s defenses until 1 December. Salme besieged the place with 3,000 soldiers. The 1,500 Dutch defenders were led by General-major de Bons and included the 2nd Battalion of the Waldeck Infantry Regiment, four companies of the Swiss May Regiment, the depot company of the Hessen-Darmstadt Regiment, 100 men from two Jäger detachments and 100 gunners. Bons surrendered the 160-gun fortress on 29 December after his garrison sustained 16 casualties and eight desertions. Salme reported only 13 casualties.
During the winter of 1794–95 Salme was involved in the invasion of the Dutch Republic. After his troops captured Utrecht on 17 January 1795, Pichegru assigned him the administration of Amsterdam. Without unduly antagonizing the city’s inhabitants, Salme was able to provide his soldiers with new uniforms and ample food. Next he was ordered to occupy Overijssel province. He helped clear the British forces out of Friesland and Groningen provinces, winning the approval of Souham. Later that year he seems to have served in the Rhine Campaign of 1795 because he was in action at Altenkirchen and became friends with Jean Baptiste Kléber. Meanwhile, government agents stirred up trouble in Belgium with anticlerical activities and other abuses. In June 1796 Salme was assigned to a cavalry command in order to put down rebellions by unhappy Belgians. After running afoul of the French civil authorities of Brussels and the Department of the Dyle, he was recalled by the French Directory on 12 February 1797.
In April 1797, the commander of the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse, Lazare Hoche named Salme to command a dragoon brigade in Louis Klein’s division. The Coup of 18 Fructidor occurred on 4 September 1797 when the Royalist faction was overthrown by force. The treason of Pichegru came to light at this time and he was exiled from France. Because of his well-known friendship with the traitor, Salme was denounced by Hoche as “Pichegru’s vile spy” and dismissed from the army. After over a year of forced retirement, he secured a post with the Army of Egypt on 9 November 1798 due to the intervention of Kléber. However, Salme missed the sailing at Ancona and instead joined the Army of Rome under Jean Étienne Championnet. At that time Guillaume Philibert Duhesme’s division of 3,000–4,000 men was near Ancona. In the face of an attack by the Neapolitan army, Championnet evacuated Rome on 27 November. However, the Neapolitan army quickly unraveled and the French recaptured Rome on 15 December and seized Naples itself on 23 January 1799. Soon after, Championnet got into a dispute with French government agents, was removed from command on 28 February and placed under arrest. MacDonald replaced him as commander of the army.
In view of the French defeats in northern Italy, MacDonald was instructed to garrison central and southern Italy and come north by forced marches with the Army of Naples. The order arrived on 14 April 1799 and MacDonald began his move north on 7 May. MacDonald named Salme to lead the 2,997-man army Advance Guard which was made up of the 15th Light (1,390 men) and 11th Line (1,440 men) Infantry Demi-brigades, 94 troopers from the 25th Chasseurs à Cheval and 53 gunners and sappers. At 8:00 am on 17 June 1799, MacDonald opened the Battle of Trebbia by sending 18,700 soldiers from the divisions of Claude Perrin Victor, Jean-Baptiste Dominique Rusca and Jean Henri Dombrowski plus Salme’s Advance Guard into action. At first the French pressed back the Austrians of Peter Karl Ott von Bátorkéz but reinforcements began to arrive until the Coalition commander Alexander Suvorov had 30,656 Austrians and Russians on the field. MacDonald had been wounded at the Battle of Modena and delegated Victor to direct the assault. But Victor never took charge of the troops that day and the French fought without a guiding hand. Late in the day, Salme’s Advance Guard covered the retreat of the three French divisions behind the Tidone River.
Salme’s troops were only Frenchmen that remained east of the Trebbia River. On 18 June MacDonald waited for his three missing divisions to arrive on the battlefield. Meanwhile, Suvorov planned to launch a powerful stroke with his right wing but was unable to get his columns moving. It was so quiet that Salme asked permission to go into Piacenza. The Coalition assault began at 4:00 pm and struck Salme first. He was ordered to retreat as soon as the enemy applied pressure but instead he stood his ground. Salme was wounded and so was his successor Jean Sarrazin. Finally Louis Joseph Lahure took command and withdrew the Advance Guard behind the Trebbia, but not without some confusion. When the Army of Naples retreated on 20 June it left behind wounded generals Salme, Rusca and Jean-Baptiste Olivier. Salme was held a prisoner by the Austrians until the Treaty of Lunéville in March 1801.
Salme went on the Saint-Domingue expedition arriving in Hispaniola on 5 February 1802. He was assigned to command the 13th Brigade in Jean Hardy’s division. The expedition commander Charles Leclerc immediately organized a sweep to round up Haitian forces led by Toussaint Louverture. During the operation, Hardy took Salme’s brigade on an all-night march to surprise a Haitian base at Bayonnais. Much of Haiti was brought under French control but large Haitian forces escaped and Hardy’s division returned to Cap-Français. Leclerc promoted Salme general of division on 15 May 1802 and immediately set him back to France for reasons which remain unclear. The possibilities are that he was sick

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, that he was harshly critical of restoring slavery in Hispaniola, that he was dealing in the black market and, finally, that he had become the lover of Pauline Bonaparte, Leclerc’s wife. In any case he was directed to report on the condition of the army when he got back to France. That year Leclerc and Hardy and most of the army perished from yellow fever.
On 16 October 1802 Salme was placed in inactive status and given an annual pension of 5,000 francs. On 26 August 1803 he was retired with a pension of 2,500 francs. He took up residence in Drusenheim on a property co-owned by his father-in-law. His wife Jeanne Henriette tried to poison him but a loyal servant warned him in time and the only fatality was his dog. He moved to the market square of Neufchâteau and went into business with another man as manufacturers of starch. Because of his association with Moreau the police had him under surveillance in June 1804. He sent many letters to the War Ministry asking to be employed but he was ignored even though he had the sympathy of Pierre de Ruel, marquis de Beurnonville. Much of his time was taken up by a property dispute with his wife. On 8 August 1809 he was given command of a brigade of National Guards and served in the Walcheren Campaign. Though he performed his duties properly, he was sent home on 29 September 1809.
Souham was home from the Peninsular War with a wound and Salme asked that general to get him a combat posting. On 16 April 1810 he was appointed to the VII Corps also known as the Army of Catalonia. At that time Louis-Gabriel Suchet was getting ready to besiege Tortosa with his III Corps. MacDonald’s VII Corps was supposed to support Suchet’s operation by threatening Tarragona in August 1810. On 14 September, the Spanish under Henry O’Donnell wiped out one of MacDonald’s brigades in a successful raid at the Battle of La Bisbal well to the north. As the Spanish column

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, without O’Donnell who had been wounded, passed near MacDonald the French general moved against it. On 21 October 1810, an Italian brigade under Francesco Orsatelli Eugenio supported by a French brigade under Salme attacked the Spanish position at Cardona. Eugenio’s reckless initial assault was repulsed with 100 casualties and MacDonald withdrew.
Emperor Napoleon directed Suchet to capture the port city of Tarragona and promised that general that he would find his marshal’s baton inside its walls. Unhappy with the operations of MacDonald, the emperor boosted Suchet’s army from 26,000 to 43,000 troops by transferring soldiers from MacDonald’s VII Corps in March 1811. After detaching 20 battalions as garrisons and observation forces, Suchet assembled 29 battalions for his siege force. These were grouped into infantry divisions under Jean Isidore Harispe, Bernard-Georges-François Frère and Pierre-Joseph Habert and 1,400 cavalry led by André Joseph Boussart. There were also 2,000 gunners and 750 engineers and sappers attached to the army. Harispe and Frère marched from Lleida (Lérida) while Habert moved from Tortosa along the coast with the siege train. Harispe’s division occupied Montblanc on 29 April 1811 and Reus on 2 May. Leading the inland column, Salme’s advanced guard pushed the Spanish outposts behind the Francolí River on 3 May. Salme became a member of the Légion d’Honneur on 7 May 1811.
North of Tarragona lay Monte Olivo which overlooked the lower town. Atop the feature, the Spanish defenders built the powerful Fort Olivo, protected by a ditch carved into solid rock and defended by 1,000 soldiers. Suchet and his engineers determined to start the Siege of Tarragona from the west side, but first they needed to capture Fort Olivo from which the Spanish could take the siege trenches under a crossfire. Suchet arranged his divisions with Habert on the right at the coast, Frère in the center straddling the Francolí and Harispe on the left. In Harispe’s division Salme’s French brigade faced Fort Olivo while the two Italian brigades reached around to touch the coast east of Tarragona. Harispe’s division included three battalions each of the 7th and 16th Line Infantry Regiments and eight Italian battalions. On 13 May the French captured two small fortifications in front of Fort Olivo and beat back a three-battalion counterattack by the Spanish the next day. Because the main attack from the west was delayed, Suchet decided to concentrate a vigorous effort against Fort Olivo beginning on 23 May. Over the next few days batteries before the fort were armed with 13 cannons which began to inflict serious damage on it. On the night of 27 May, as French soldiers dragged four 24-pound cannons into battery, they were blasted by Spanish fire which caused numerous casualties. At this moment, the defenders mounted a sortie from Fort Olivo. Watching the proceedings carefully, Salme called out to his reserves, “Brave 7th forward!” He was struck in the head by a musket ball and killed instantly. The men rushed past him and repulsed the Spanish attack. Fort Olivo fell on the night of the 29th with heavy losses to the defenders.
Salme was buried under a nearby aqueduct, the Pont de les Ferreres, and his embalmed heart was placed in the Tower of the Scipios along the road to Barcelona. After the French captured Tarragona they changed the name of Fort Olivo to Fort Salme. Since Salme had no children and was in the process of divorcing his wife, his financial assets were distributed among his brothers and sisters. Napoleon granted his father a 1,000 franc per year annuity. SALM is engraved on the west side of the Arc de Triomphe.

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Epistolary between Miguel Miramón and Concepción Lombardo

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

The Epistolary between Miguel Miramón and Concepción Lombardo encompasses the years of 1832 to 1867 between the general Miguel Miramón with his wife Concepción Lombardo

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Apart from the sentimental exchanges between Miramón and his wife, this Epistolary is a rich source of information of the daily life in Mexico during the 19th century. Incidentally, it paints an image on the life of the general and serves as an essential historical document on the achievements of Miguel Miramón and Concepción Lombardo.
An example can be seen in this letter of the general to Concepción:
[…] Trece dias llevo de haber ocu/pado esta Plaza [de San Luis Potosí] y hasta hoy he tenido el placer de ver las letras, creme vida mia que he pasa/do muy amargos ratos y que cuando todos ó los mas envidian mi pericia yo me hastío y fastidio por lo que padesco ya por falta de tus cartas […]. Te suplico me escribas pues de lo contrario no es vida la que llevo. Saves que te adora tu, Miguel.
([…] It has been thirteen days since I occupied this Plaza [of San Luis Potosí] and until today have I been able to see the letters

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, believe me my love that I’ve been having some hard times and that when everyone else envies my expertise I get tired, therefore I suffer when your letters don’t arrive […]. I plead you to write me otherwise it is not life what I live. You know I adore you, Miguel.)
The letters also frame historical events like the French intervention in Mexico and its effect in the personal life of the general:
[…] La invasión francesa nos obliga á separarnos Hoy 24 de marzo de 1863 […] que Dios nos permita volvernos á unir para gozar de las delicias de la vida […].
([…] The French invasion is forcing us to separate Today 24 of March of 1863 […] that God allows us to reunite to enjoy the delights of life […])
The years of the regency of Maximiliano I of Mexico and Carlota Amalia of Belgium, Miramón was a diplomat in several European countries, and these are described in this same epistolary.
Perhaps one of the most interesting letters is his final letter to Concepción before his execution in Querétaro decreed by Benito Juárez in 1867:
[…] Ruegote tengas resignación te cuides para la educación y colocación de los ni/ños para que quites a Miguel toda idea de venganza y que pienses algunas veces en quien tanto te ha hecho sufrir pero que mucho te a amado […]
([..

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.] I implore you to take care of the education and placement of the children so that you take away Miguel’s idea of vengeance and that you think of the one who made you suffer but who loved you very much [.

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..])
Concepción of Lombardo wrote her Memories, where she includes fragments of the letters from her husband; these letters help Concepción create a piece that describes at length the events that ended in the fall of Second Mexican Empire.

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The Idler Wheel…

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

The Idler Wheel Is Wiser Than the Driver of the Screw and Whipping Cords Will Serve You More Than Ropes Will Ever Do, frequently abridged as The Idler Wheel…, is the fourth studio album by Fiona Apple. Like her second album When the Pawn…, it derives from a poem[citation needed] written by Apple herself. It was released on June 19, 2012

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, by Epic Records. The album debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, her highest debut yet, selling 72,000 copies in its first week. The album earned a nomination at the 2013 Grammy Awards for Best Alternative Album.
The album was recognized as #10 among The 100 Best Albums of the Decade So Far, a list published by Pitchfork Media in August 2014.

Following the delays and controversy surrounding the release of Extraordinary Machine (2005), Apple began recording new material for her fourth studio album in secret, including from her label, Epic Records. When asked by BlackBook magazine on when the recording sessions began, Apple remarked,
It must have started in 2008. Or 2009. I don’t know! I have no idea. It’s weird to think that there was 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011. Where’ve I been? What was I doing? What was that year about?
Apple remarked,
It was very casual, and I wasn’t fully admitting that I was making an album, I got to use the time in the studio to inspire me to finish other things rather than feel like I was finishing homework to hand in. It wasn’t a lot of pressure. And the record company didn’t know I was doing it, so nobody was looking over my shoulder.
Instead of her long-time collaborator Jon Brion, Apple opted to produce the album with her touring drummer, Charley Drayton. Executives at Epic only found out that Apple had recorded an album in early 2012, when she presented it to them. Originally planned for release in 2011, Apple delayed the album’s release until her label found a new president in 2012, explaining that she delayed it because she “didn’t want her work to be mishandled amid corporate disarray.” During a secret concert in Los Angeles with Brion, Apple remarked, “I can’t remember any of my new songs because they’ve been done for a fucking year.” On January 24, 2012, L.A. Reid announced through social networking site Twitter that new material from Apple will be released later in 2012, saying “Lot’s [sic] of good music coming from Epic_Records in the next few weeks. Stay tuned music fans. Welcome back Fiona!”
Apple announced a small tour in Spring 2012 prompting speculation over a new album. Ahead of her first performance on the tour, the album and its title were announced. The tour marked Apple’s first performances outside of Los Angeles in over five years. Apple kicked off the tour with two performances at the South by Southwest Festival where she debuted three new songs from The Idler Wheel….The album’s first single, “Every Single Night”, received positive reviews and was well received by fans and critics. Pitchfork Media’s Jenn Pelly gave the song their Best New Music designation the same day. She released a video for the track “Hot Knife” on July 24, 2013.
On June 19, 2012, the same day that The Idler Wheel… was released, Apple began an expansive North American tour to promote the album. The tour kicked off in Ithaca, New York, and finished on July 29 at the Hollywood Palladium. On June 24, Apple performed at the Sunday portion of New York City’s Governors Ball Music Festival, which featured acts such as Modest Mouse, Explosions in the Sky and Beck, among others.
The music video for “Every Single Night” premiered on the Sundance Channel on June 10 and was directed by Joseph Cahill. On the same day the entire album streamed online on NPR. On June 18, Apple made her first television appearance since 2006 on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon. Apple performed “Anything We Want” with The Roots and celebrated Paul McCartney’s 70th birthday by performing “Let Me Roll It” with Jimmy Fallon performing back-up vocals.
The Idler Wheel..

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. was lauded by music critics upon release. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 89, based on 35 reviews, which indicates “universal acclaim”. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic gave a very positive review to the album, awarding it with four-and-a-half stars out of five, found Fiona Apple stronger than ever and said: “Nothing is wasted, either in the composition or arrangement, and this lean confidence binds The Idler Wheel. Stripped of all her carnivalesque accouterments, Fiona Apple remains as rich and compelling as she ever was, perhaps even more so.” BBC Music reviewer James Skinner was positive on the album and happy that she’s finally back. Blair Kelly of the musicOMH praised the album and found it “at the same time both roaring with rage and swooning with romance”, gave it four-and-a-half stars out of five and wrote: “The Idler Wheel… is a really incredible album, where Apple has quite cleverly developed musically in just the right way, creating something utterly distinct and different to her earlier work whilst still retaining all the characteristics that won fans over to begin with.” American Songwriter writer Jim Beviglia started his review with not believing she has been around for almost 16 years and only released four albums, rated it with four-stars-out-of-five and noted: “Like an open wound, The Idler Wheel isn’t always pretty, but it pulses with life, brutal and true. Let’s just hope that Apple doesn’t wait so long next time to challenge us all again.” Nick Krenn of Earbuddy scored the album 9.4 out of ten and said “Apple’s songwriting remains sharp, perhaps more serrated, featuring lyrical wordplay performed with impeccable flow that many rappers would envy.” Melissa Maerz of Entertainment Weekly was also very positive on the album, calling it “hard to understand” like the previous ones and gave it an A and closed her review writing: “You have to give yourself over to The Idler Wheel in a way you probably haven’t done since you were a kid, before jobs and other adult responsibilities claimed the long hours you spent curled up by your stereo speakers. It isn’t easy listening. But it’s worth it.” Ryan Dombal of Pitchfork Media scored the album nine out of ten and called it “the most distilled Fiona Apple album yet”, concluding that “even after being thrown into the media spotlight at a young age, and having to deal with crippling doubt, Fiona Apple didn’t go boom. She’s still here, brave enough to indulge in raw emotion and smart enough to make those feelings carry.” Consequence of Sound was also very positive and called the album “one of the most daring pop records in recent history”, awarding it with four-and-a-half stars out of five and said: “The risks she takes hardly even seem like risks for her anymore because the album is so well-oiled.”
Jessica Hopper of Spin rated it eight out of ten and said: “The unexpected triumph lies not in the spectacle of the singer raw-dogging her emotions, but in her total command of the anarchy that results.” Greg Kot of Chicago Tribune called it “more stripped down and turbulent than before” and gave it three-and-a-half stars out of four and said: “It makes for a raw, unsettling listen, tempered by shots of dark humor.” NME put the album as “NME Recommends” and rated it as eight-out-of-ten and said: “The tension created by the lyrics and music is wonderful and uneasy, ensuring that The Idler Wheel… is endlessly fascinating and unlike anything else you’re likely to hear this year.” Slant Magazine was also positive and gave it four-stars-out-of-five and said: “The Idler Wheel captures what’s made Apple one of the defining artists of her generation: a persona that’s reflected changing views of private versus public spheres. The results have often been misunderstood, but Apple has continued to present herself as someone who refuses to resort to niceties of tact or self-censorship when she engages with her audience.” The A.V. Club graded the album an A and said: “The beauty of The Idler Wheel… is how it transmits each of those feelings in excruciating, frank, and lovely detail.” Jillian Mapes of Billboard gave a very positive review to the album and wrote: “The result is an album that was absolutely worth the seven-year wait, not to mention the mountain of hype atop which Apple has sat since her big comeback at SXSW in March.” The Boston Phoenix praised the album, awarded it with three-and-a-half stars out of four and said: “Her fourth album is arguably her funniest … but also her leanest and most melodically daring.” Paste magazine reviewer Stephen M. Deusner wrote a positive review and rated as 8.4 out of 10 and said: “To her immense credit, Apple never flinches at such uneasy insights and insoluble contradictions, which makes The Idler Wheel a tough but rewarding listen.” Now magazine was also positive on the album, picked “Hot Knife” as the “Top Track”, gave it four out of five stars and noted, “Apple’s return to music is not only undeniably powerful, but Idler is arguably her best work yet.”
However, PopMatters’ Enio Chiola rated the album six out of ten and said: “half of the album is magnificent, and stylistically contradistinct, while the other half exists in some offbeat and off-putting terrain that will either elude its listeners, or alienate them.” but in the end he confessed that “The Idler Wheel isn’t necessarily (even at its core) a bad record. It is a record that is purposefully and inauthentically difficult for the sake of being difficult.” Rolling Stone gave the album three-and-a-half out of five stars and said: “The Idler Wheel… is a challenging album. The songs are intricately arranged but sonically stark, foregrounding Apple’s piano and the stupendous drumming of Charley Drayton. There’s not a single big

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, chewy hook on the album. Sometimes the songs drag… But Apple’s kooky energy pushes through the slow spots.”
The album earned a nomination at the 55th Grammy Awards for Best Alternative Album. The album was named the best album of 2012 by Time Magazine, Stereogum, Spinner, and NPR Music’s Fresh Air. It ranked at number 2 on the lists of Consequence of Sound and Entertainment Weekly, number 3 on the lists of USA Today and Pitchfork Media, number 4 on Paste, number 5 in Rolling Stone, number 10 on Idolator, number sixteen in Spin, number seventeen on American Songwriter and Filter, and appeared on NPR’s unnumbered list.
Apple’s track “Hot Knife” ranked at number twelve in Rolling Stones 50 Best Songs of 2012 list and “Every Single Night” ranked at number 7 on American Songwriters Top 50 Songs of 2012. In Pitchfork Media’s Top 100 Tracks of 2012, “Werewolf” was ranked at number 9 and “Every Single Night” was ranked at number 35.
All songs written and composed by Fiona Apple. 
Credits adapted from The Idler Wheel… album liner notes.

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Masterplan (Stefanie Heinzmann album)

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Masterplan is the first studio album by the Swiss singer Stefanie Heinzmann. It was released by Universal Music Domestic on March 7, 2008, (see 2008 in music) in German-speaking Europe under-armour-outlet.com, after she won the television talent contest SSDSDSSWEMUGABRTLAD on the television show TV total. The album was mainly produced by Paul NZA and Marek Pompetzki.
On November 14, 2008

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, a deluxe edition of the album was released, including the previously unreleased single “The Unforgiven”, cover versions of songs by Metallica and Stevie Wonder, a B-side and two remix versions

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Masterplan debuted at number-one on the Swiss Singles Chart. It remained seven weeks within the top ten and spent forty weeks on the chart. In Switzerland, the album was certified platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) for more than 30,000 copies sold and was ranked 17th on the Swiss year-end chart. In Germany, the album debuted and peaked at number three on the German Albums Chart. It was eventually certified platinum in Germany by the Bundesverband Musikindustrie (BVMI) as well, for shipping 200,000 copies.
^shipments figures based on certification alone xunspecified figures based on certification alone

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Finanzierungskosten

Posted by darren - julio 31st, 2016

Finanzierungskosten sind die mit einer Finanzierung verbundenen Kosten.

Die Finanzierung ist eine betriebliche Funktion

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, bei deren Wahrnehmung Finanzierungskosten verursacht werden. Die Finanzierungskosten eines Unternehmens setzen sich aus den Kosten für die Nutzung von Eigenkapital und den Kosten für die Inanspruchnahme von Fremdkapital zusammen. Die Finanzierungskosten heißen in der Betriebswirtschaftslehre auch Gesamtkapitalkosten.
Die Gesamtkapitalkosten umfassen die Kosten der Eigen- und Fremdfinanzierung. Die Kosten der Eigenfinanzierung setzen sich aus Transaktionskosten für die Emission oder Börseneinführung von Aktien und aus fiktiven Kosten zusammen. Zu letzteren gehören die Opportunitätskosten des Eigenkapitals eines Gesellschafters für eine entgangene alternative Geldanlage. Diese Eigenkapitalkosten der Gesellschafter setzen sich aus einem risikofreien Zins (Opportunitätszins für eine risikofreie, entgangene alternative Geldanlage) und einer Risikoprämie zusammen. Die Risikoprämie stellt den Teil der Renditeerwartung des Gesellschafters dar, den er über den risikofreien Zins hinaus für das Unternehmerrisiko als Kompensation verlangt. Ausschüttungen, Dividenden oder Gewinnrücklagen sind hingegen keine Eigenkapitalkosten, sondern stellen eine Gewinnverwendung dar

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. Zu den Kosten der Fremdfinanzierung gehören insbesondere Zinsaufwendungen.
Die Betriebswirtschaftslehre teilt die Finanzierungskosten in quantitative und qualitative Finanzierungskosten ein.
Zwischen den qualitativen Finanzierungskosten und/oder zunehmender Kapitalüberlassungsdauer und/oder Zinsänderungsrisiko besteht eine positive Korrelation.
Aufgrund der Differenz zwischen Eigenkapital- und Fremdkapitalkosten sinken zunächst durch die Aufnahme des günstigeren Fremdkapitals die Gesamtkapitalkosten. Der Leverage-Effekt besagt in diesem Zusammenhang, dass mit steigendem Verschuldungsgrad sich die Eigenkapitalrentabilität bei Unternehmen verbessert, solange der Fremdkapitalzins unter der Gesamtkapitalrentabilität liegt. Dieser positive Leverage-Effekt macht sich bis Erreichen des optimalen Verschuldungsgrads positiv bemerkbar

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; der optimale Verschuldungsgrad wird jedoch überschritten, wenn der Anstieg der Gesamtkapitalkosten den positiven Effekt der Fremdkapitalaufnahme übersteigt.
Die optimale Kapitalstruktur ist aus Sicht der Finanzierungskosten erreicht, wenn quantitative und qualitative Finanzierungskosten ein Minimum bilden. Finanzierungskosten gelten als Fixkosten, da sie beschäftigungsunabhängig anfallen. Im „Financial leverage“ wirken sie daher insbesondere bei (fremd)kapitalintensiven Betrieben als besonders belastend und verschlechtern die Gewinnschwelle bei sich verringerndem Beschäftigungsgrad. Der „Financial leverage“ (Kapitalhebel) beschreibt den Einfluss der Kapitalstruktur auf die Eigenkapitalrentabilität und drückt die Reagibilität der Nettogewinne (Bruttogewinn minus Zinsaufwand) auf eine Veränderung der Bruttogewinne aus:
Der amerikanische Finanzwissenschaftler Nevins D. Baxter kam im September 1967 zu dem Ergebnis, dass mit zunehmender Verschuldung die Gefahr der Überschuldung steigt und damit das Insolvenzrisiko zunimmt. Die Gläubiger werden ihre Fremdkapitalzinsen bei zunehmendem Verschuldungsgrad erhöhen, was sich direkt auf die Kapitalkosten und damit den „Financial leverage“ auswirkt.
Die gewichteten Gesamtkapitalkosten des Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) ist eine betriebswirtschaftliche Kennzahl, die die Eigenkapital- und Fremdkapitalkosten berücksichtigt und den Unternehmenswert als die Summe der Marktwerte des Fremd- und Eigenkapitals versteht:
wobei den Unternehmensgesamtwert, den Marktwert des Fremdkapitals und den Marktwert des Eigenkapitals darstellen.
Im Steuerrecht sind im Zusammenhang mit den Einkünften entstehende Finanzierungskosten als Werbungskosten im Sinne des § 9 Abs. 1 Nr 1 EStG abzugsfähig.
Relevant für den Abzug ist vor allem der wirtschaftliche Zusammenhang mit den Einkünften. Im Veranlagungszeitraum, in dem die Finanzierungskosten abfließen, sind diese abzugsfähig. Das Abflussprinzip des § 11 EStG ist hier maßgebend. Aufwendungen sind vor allem
Bezüglich des Disagios ist zu berücksichtigen, dass dieses nicht gemäß dem Abflussprinzip steuerlich geltend gemacht werden darf, sondern über die Laufzeit des Kredites verteilt wird.
Bei Einkommen aus Selbstständiger Tätigkeit wird oftmals versucht, aus privaten (nicht absetzbaren) Schuldzinsen betriebliche (absetzbare) Finanzierungskosten zu machen. Hierzu dient das 2-Konten-Modell. Dabei werden betriebliche Kosten auf ein Bankkonto gebucht, die Einnahmen jedoch als Entnahmen auf ein privates Konto. Während die Privatentnahmen zur Tilgung privater Kredite verwendet werden, sind die Zinsen auf das geschäftliche Konto Finanzierungskosten und damit absetzbar. Um dieses Steuerschlupfloch zu schließen, wurde das BMF-Schreiben vom 22. Mai 2000 IV C 2 – S 2144–2160/00 erlassen.
Um zu verhindern, dass Gewinne internationaler Unternehmen in Tochtergesellschaften in Ländern mit hohen Steuersätzen verringert werden, indem diesen von der Muttergesellschaft hohe Finanzierungskosten aufgebürdet werden

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, bestehen komplizierte Regeln zur Gesellschafter-Fremdfinanzierung, die im Rahmen der Unternehmenssteuerreform 2008 in Deutschland angepasst werden sollen.
Die Finanzierungskosten stellen im Mietrecht keine Nebenkosten dar, die auf den Mieter umgelegt werden können. Lediglich im Bereich des sozialen Wohnungsbaus werden die tatsächlichen Finanzierungskosten in der sog. Kostenmiete berücksichtigt (§ 72 Abs. 1 II. Wohnungsbaugesetz).

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